National Security and Bioethics: A Reading List

Forty-two years ago, in July 1972, the Tuskegee syphilis study was reported in the Washington Star and New York Times. Yesterday, a twitter chat hosted by TheDarkSci/National Science and Technology News Service, featuring Professors Ruha Benjamin and Alfiee M. Breland-Noble, discussed bioethics and lingering concerns about medical mistrust in the African-American Community. It was an excellent event, and you can read back through it here.[1]

Late in the chat, Marissa Evans expressed a desire to know some more about bioethics and bioterror, and I offered to post some links to engaging books on the topic.

The big problem is that there aren’t that many books that specifically deal with bioterrorism and bioethics. There are a lot of amazing books in peace studies, political science, international relations, history, and sociology on bioterorism. Insofar as these fields intersect with—and do—bioethics, they are excellent things to read. But a bioethics-specific, bioterror-centric book is a lot rarer.

As such, the readings provided are those that ground the reader in issues that are important to understanding bioterrorism from a bioethical perspective. These include ethical issues involving national security and scientific research, dangerous experiments with vulnerable populations, and the ethics of defending against the threat of bioterror.

The Plutonium Files: America’s Secret Medical Experiments in the Cold War. If you read one book on the way that national security, science, and vulnerable people do not mix, read Eileen Welsome’s account of the so-called “Human Radiation Experiments.” Read about dozens of experiments pursued on African Americans, pregnant women, children with disabilities, and more, in the name of understanding the biological properties of plutonium—the fuel behind atomic bombs. All done behind the great screen of the the Atomic Energy Act, because of plutonium’s status as the key to atomic weapons.

Undue Risk: Secret State Experiments on Humans. A book by my current boss, Jonathan D. Moreno, that covers some of the pivotal moments in state experimentation on human beings. The majority of the cases Moreno covers are those pursued in the interests of national security. Particularly in the context of the Cold War, there was a perceived urgent need to marshall basic science in aid of national security. What happened behind the curtain of classification in the name of that security, however, was grim.

Biohazard: The Chilling True Story of the Largest Covert Biological Weapons Program in the World–Told from Inside by the Man Who Ran It. Ken Alibek is hardly what you’d call a reliable narrator; then again, I can’t imagine what being part of a crack Soviet bioweaponeer unit would do to a person.[2] Nonetheless, it is a foundational read in the immense bioweapons enterprise that was built from the 1970s till the end of the Cold War.

Innovation, Dual Use, and Security: Managing the Risks of Emerging Biological and Chemical Technologies The late Jonathan B. Tucker released this edited volume in 2012; while the debate about dual-use in the life sciences has progressed since then, it is still one of the most thoughtful pieces on the topic of bioterrorism, biological warfare, and the governance of the life sciences out there. It is also accessible in a way that policy documents tend not to be. That’s significant, as the book is a policy document: it started out as a report for the Defense Threat Reducation Agency.

This list could be very long, but if I were to pick out a selection of books that I consider essential to my work, these would be among the top of the list.

As an addendum, an argument emerged on the back of the NSTNS chat about whether science is “good.” That’s a huge topic, but is really important for anyone interested in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics and their intersection with politics and power. As I stated yesterday on Twitter, however, understanding whether “science is good” requires understanding what the “science” bit means. That’s not altogether straightforward.

Giving a recommendation on that issue involves stepping into a large and relatively bitter professional battle. Nonetheless, my first recommendation is always Phillip Kitcher’s Science, Truth, and Democracy. Kitcher carefully constructs a model of where agents interact with scientific methods and tools, and so identifies how we should make ethical judgements about scientific research. I don’t think he gets everything right, but that’s kind of a given in philosophy.

So, thousands of pages of reading. You’re welcome, Internet. There will be a test on Monday.


  1. I’ll update later with a link to a Storify that I believe is currently being built around the event.  ↩
  2. Well, I can. It is called “Ken Alibek.”  ↩
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