Tag Archives: philosophy

What am I reading? 15 June 2014

This week involved some heavy reading. I’ve got a series of writing tasks ahead of me, and the last week has involved a lot of citation collection. I find that unless I’ve got most—if not all—my citations at hand, my writing is really inefficient. Lots of scratching my head going “I know that’s a Thing… where did I read it?!” and so on.

Bioethics/STS

Evans, Sam Weiss. 2014. “Synthetic Biology: Missing the Point.” Nature 510: 218.

Sam Evans—no relation—continues to fight the (one of the) good fight(s). Corresponding on behalf of 21 other correspondents, Evans reminds the readers of Nature that:

the point of supporting synthetic biology is not about making sure that science can go wherever it wants: it is about making the type of society people want to live in.

This, I think, nails down the objection I have to a lot of public debates about science and ethics. In a staggering number of contexts—everything from synthetic biology to sexual harassment—there is a tendency for some groups to wring their hands about how a particular movement, regulation, or concern will “stifle” innovation or creativity. I’m happy to see Evans calling bullshit on this particular rhetorical sleight of hand. Serial killers and terrorists can be innovative and creative; an appeal to innovation isn’t valid unless it points to more substantive values.

Glerup, Cecilie, and Maja Horst. 2014. “Mapping ‘Social Responsibility’ in Science.” Journal of Responsible Innovation 1(1): 31–50.

An analysis of different conceptions of responsibility in science, as it relates to the social impact of scientific research.

The article has an important point to make: that there are a number of different ways we understand the relationship between science and society, and that all of these conceptions are active and engaged in contemporary discourse. Unfortunately, for all the time the authors spend on unpacking the governance of science in its varied forms, they don’t unpack the concept of responsibility. Which—considering the article’s title—might be important. The problems intensify in that the review is based around a set of distinctions that aren’t hard or fast rules. This is acknowledged by the authors towards the end of the paper, but it might have been better to proceed with that as a part of the review, rather than an afterthought.

Also, if you’re going to do a review? Being a bit more transparent in one’s methodology. Looking through the references I identified dozens of papers that probably could have been included, but without better knowledge of how the authors structured their search criteria, I don’t know whether those papers were found and rejected, or just never found.

National Research Council. 2014. Emerging and Readily Available Technologies and National Security. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Another Big Government Report on science policy and ethics. I’m about 30 pages in, so don’t spoil the ending for me.

Murphy, Brad, and Jennifer S Reath. 2014. “The Imperative for Investment in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health.” Medical Journal of Australia 200 (11): 615–16. doi:10.5694/mja14.00632.

An important article about the investment priorities for Indigenous health in Australia. This is an issue that is really close to my heart (my grandfather was a GP, and spent half a century working in rural South Australia), and one that the current Australian Government has compromised in defunding primary care and Indigenous health.

Part of an entire issue of the MJA devoted to Indigenous health.

Infectious Diseases

Almazán, Fernando, Marta L DeDiego, Isabel Sola, Sonia Zuñiga, Jose L Nieto-Torres, Silvia Marquez-Jurado, German Andrés, and Luis Enjuanes. 2013. “Engineering a Replication-Competent, Propagation-Defective Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus as a Vaccine Candidate.” mBio 4 (5): e00650–13. doi:10.1128/mBio.00650–13.

A “loss-of-function” study, in which the researchers engineered the Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS) to lose its transmissibility. The studies I’ve been arguing against, typically, are “gain-of-function,” and so a loss-of-function study is very interesting. Near as I can tell, the mutations the study makes use of are common to coronaviruses, and don’t correspond to extra properties—so this isn’t a gain-of-function study masquerading as loss-of-function. By interrupting how the virus transcribes its own genetic material, they were able to create a variant of the virus which can replicate, but can’t propagate. Unlike an attenuated virus—which runs the risk of reactivating—this virus appears unable to do so. The authors argue, from this, that their virus presents a better option for study and vaccine development.

Webster, Robert G, William J Bean, Owen T Gorman, Thomas M Chambers, and Yoshihiro Kawaoka. 1992. “Evolution and Ecology of Influenza A Viruses.” Microbiological Reviews 56 (1). Am Soc Microbiol: 152–79.

Wertheim, Joel O. 2010. “The Re-Emergence of H1N1 Influenza Virus in 1977: a Cautionary Tale for Estimating Divergence Times Using Biologically Unrealistic Sampling Dates.” PLoS One 5 (6). Public Library of Science: e11184. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011184.

Nakajima, Katsuhisa, Ulrich Desselberger, and Peter Palese. 1978. “Recent Human Influenza A (H1N1) Viruses Are Closely Related Genetically to Strains Isolated in 1950.” Nature 274 (5669): 334–39. doi:10.1038/274334a0.

Interesting papers on the evolution of the influenza viruses. My particular interest was the evolution of the 1977 influenza virus, which—according to the above papers—matches a 1950 strain so closely that researchers concluded it was likely the 1977 escaped from a laboratory sample.

Racaniello, Vincent R. 2010. “Social Media and Microbiology Education.” PLoS Pathogens 6 (10). Public Library of Science: e1001095.

I’ve a series of bones to pick with Vincent, and this was part of my research. More on that next week.

Tokiko Watanabe, Gongxun Zhong, Colin A Russell, Noriko Nakajima, Masato Hatta, Anthony Hanson, Ryan McBride, et al. 2014. “Circulating Avian Influenza Viruses Closely Related to the 1918 Virus Have Pandemic Potential.” Cell Host & Microbe 15 (692–705). doi:10.1016/j.chom.2014.05.006.

No surprise—I’ve blogged about this paper twice this week (here and here).

History of Science

Foerstel, Herbert N. 1993. Secret Science. Praeger Publishers.

A book I was unable to get my hands on during my PhD, but always wished I could. Foerstel gives some incredible history about censorship and secrecy in science. The chapter I was interested in was the nuclear sciences, as befitting my background. The highlight of the chapter was Foerstel’s retelling of the Office of Censorship requesting the writers of Superman in 1942 cease and desist in a storyline that involved an “atom smasher,” for fear that enemies of the state would infer from the story that something was up (i.e. the race for the bomb). This, mind you, while TIME was reporting that there were zero physics of chemistry papers in the annual meeting of the American Philosophical Society, inferring that something must be up behind the veil of military secrecy.

Philosophy

Kvanvig, Jonathan L. 2003. The Value of Knowledge and the Pursuit of Understanding. Cambridge University Press.

For an article I’m writing on the “ethics of knowledge.” Kvanvig investigates the idea that knowledge has some kind of normative value—in simplest terms, utility—that sets it apart, and makes it more important, than other types of beliefs. The value of meaning has received some attention regarding the internal features of knowledge that make it valuable over, say, a mere true belief, but work in philosophy on the value of knowledge through external appeal, and as a holistic concept, is sparse in the Western analytic tradition. Kvanvig is after that. I read through the introduction and first chapter, as I don’t yet have borrowing privileges at the University of Pennsylvania Library.

Kagan, S. 1992. “The Limits of Well-Being.” Social Philosophy and Policy 9 (2): 169–89.

Kagan, S. 1994. “Me and My Life.” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 94: 309–24.

Two articles by one of my favourite philosophers. Kagan addresses the same problem in both articles: to what extent is well-being—not the amount of it one has, but how one conceives of it—something that relies entirely on one’s internal state, and to what extent is it something that relates to external properties of the world. Kagan’s writing is nice and conversational, and (unlike a lot of analytic philosophers) he’s less worried about grinding his particular conceptual axe, as he is exploring a series of concepts.

Put another way, there are no answers in these papers. There are, however, a lot of questions.

(Kagan also has an awesome set of lectures on death on YouTube)

Economics/Law

Cheng, Cheng, and Mark Hoekstra. 2013. “Does Strengthening Self-Defense Law Deter Crime or Escalate Violence? Evidence From Expansions to Castle Doctrine.” Journal of Human Resources 48 (3). University of Wisconsin Press: 821–54.

McClellan, Chandler B, and Erdal Tekin. 2012. Stand Your Ground Laws and Homicides. IZA Discussion Paper 6705.

Cook, Philip J. 2013. “Why Stand Your Ground Laws Are Dangerous.” Scholars Strategy Network. Scholars Strategy Network.

A series or articles provided to my by Philip Cook (author of the third article) on the “stand your ground” gun laws that have emerged since Florida introduced theirs in 2005. I’m starting some work on gun control and regulation in the United States, and Philip was kind enough to correspond with me and provide me with some starting points.

Coase, Ronald Harry. 1974. “The Market for Goods and the Market for Ideas.” The American Economic Review. JSTOR: 384–91.

One of the classics of the vast literature on the right to freedom of speech. Central to Coase’s argument is that the market of goods and the “marketplace of ideas” (the quotes acknowledging that, as Sparrow and Goodin argue persuasively, the market metaphor doesn’t apply cleanly to ideas) are treated in divergent ways. Coase points out that this either means that something is wrong with our laws and philosophy, and argues that it is likely we’ve got both types of markets wrong (but in different ways). This is a reread; it’s been about five years since I last read this article.

Fiction

Preston, Richard. 1998. The Cobra Event. Ballantine Books

Excellent novel about a bioterror attack. Yes, I study bioterrorism for a living, and when I finish my work for the day I like to relax with a little light reading about fictional bioterrorism. Hits some of the most important aspects—as far as I’m concerned—of bioterrorism, and the incredibly difficulty of policing and tracking such an attack. Preston’s occasional interludes about the politics and science behind bioweapons (at least as understood in the 1990s) give serious plausibility to the novel. The science is a little dated—biology has come a long way in 16 years—but I don’t think that detracts from the novel at all.

What Am I Reading? 8 June 2014

One of the things I’m asked most often by non-philosopher, non-bioethics types is “what exactly is that you do during the day?” The answer, by and large, is that I read and write. My reading can be pretty diverse and—at times—obscure. Below are a handful of the things I read this week.

Dewey, John. 1929. Experience and Nature. London: George Allen & Unwin, pp. 1–100

My supervisor-to-be and I were talking about American philosophy late last week, when I revealed to him that I’d not read any of John Dewey’s work. Jonathan, a gung-ho pragmatist, recommended I get stuck in to Experience and Nature. So I did. It is—in Jonathan’s own words—turgid, but there are gems.[1]

Grande, David, Sarah E Gollust, Maximilian Pany, Jane Seymour, Adeline Goss, Austin Kilaru, and Zachary Meisel. 2014. “Translating Research for Health Policy: Researchers’ Perceptions and Use of Social Media.” Health Affairs. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2014.0300.

A paper about the trends in social media use among health and healthcare researchers. Nothing particularly stunning in the conclusions: apparently, older academics don’t like social media much, and in general the healthcare sector are a bit apprehensive about communicating via Twitter.

There’s an interesting tidbit tucked in the bottom of Table 1, however. There was a drop-off in female use of social media in this sector that appears divergent from male use. There isn’t any mention of gender differences in the study, but it certainly seems to stand out.

Moya-Anegón, Félix, and Víctor Herrero-Solana. 2013. “Worldwide Topology of the Scientific Subject Profile: a Macro Approach in the Country Level.” PLoS One 8 (12). Public Library of Science: e83222. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083222.

Moya-Anegón and Herrero-Solana present a cluster analysis of publications across different countries. They found three clusters of research and, matching them against country outputs, posited a geographic distribution of research interests.

I thought their discussion could be a bit more robust, however, and would like to see some more work done on the why of particular research outputs in countries. The Eastern Bloc, for example, lost a lot of its talent in the life sciences during the Lysenko Affair; a murderous head of Russian science killing of advocates of gene theory is going to cramp a country’s style in genetics. Building these complex stories into robust and current data would be an excellent addition to the field.

Glass, Jonathan D, Nicholas M Boulis, Karl Johe, Seward B Rutkove, Thais Federici, Meraida Polak, Crystal Kelly, and Eva L Feldman. 2012. “Lumbar Intraspinal Injection of Neural Stem Cells in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Results of a Phase I Trial in 12 Patients.” Stem Cells 30 (6). Wiley Online Library: 1144–51.

Read as part of a post Kelly and I are putting together. More on that soon.

Resnik, David B. 2013. “H5N1 Avian Flu Research and the Ethics of Knowledge.” Hastings Center Report 43 (2). Wiley Online Library: 22–33. doi:10.1002/hast.143.

I’m writing a paper about—surprise, surprise—dual-use, and in no small part am responding to David’s treatment of the so-called “ethics of knowledge.” This, and a range of other papers that I haven’t listed here, were background to that piece.

Sobel, D. 1994. “Full Information Accounts of Well-Being.” Ethics 104 (4): 784–810.

There’s a lot of philosophy out there, and I’m doing my best to make sure that my own accounts of ethics aren’t just reinventing other people’s concerns. If they are, I’d rather just cite them and save the scholarly space for something that’s more contribution-y. Sobel has some interesting stuff on how we account for our own and other’s wellbeing; it’s particularly pertinent for anyone working in economics or social policy (me).

Mableson, Hayley E, Anna Okello, Kim Picozzi, and Susan Christina Welburn. 2014. “Neglected Zoonotic Diseases—the Long and Winding Road to Advocacy.” PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 8 (6): e2800. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002800.

Great little article on the action—or lack thereof—of international agencies and government to recognize or address issues surrounding neglected zoonotic diseases. Discussion centers around the need for advocacy, and what that entails at a high level.

Fouchier, Ron A M, Vincent Munster, Anders Wallensten, Theo M Bestebroer, Sander Herfst, Derek Smith, Guus F Rimmelzwaan, Björn Olsen, and Albert D M E Osterhaus. 2005. “Characterization of a Novel Influenza a Virus Hemagglutinin Subtype (H16) Obtained From Black-Headed Gulls.” Journal of Virology 79: 2814–22.

Reading a paper by Ron Fouchier? Not surprising, considering he a frequent subject of my writing (here, here, here) .

Many of these titles are available online, for free. For those who aren’t, I’m happy to provide #canhazpdf assistance.


  1. Dewey really had an optimistic belief about the way science worked. This isn’t surprising for the early 20th century. Still, Dewey writes “physicists did not think for a moment of denying the validity of what was found in that experience [provided by the results of the Michelson-Morely experiments], even though it rendered questionable an elaborate intellectual apparatus and system.” That? Isn’t what happened. In fact, there were a litany of experiments that followed trying to measure the aether flux due to the earth’s motion.  ↩